基于CentOS7系统部署cobbler批量安装系统(week5_day2_part1)-技术流ken

释放双眼,带上耳机,听听看~!

 

前言

 

  cobbler是一个可以实现批量安装系统的Linux应用程序。它有别于pxe+kickstart,cobbler可以实现同个服务器批量安装不同操作系统版本。

 

系统环境准备及其下载cobbler

 

一.系统环境

 

开启两个网卡。一个仅主机模式,一个桥接模式,主机模式对内提供cobbler服务。

[[email protected] ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:13:a1:49 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.4.190/24 brd 192.168.4.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe13:a149/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:13:a1:53 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.182.128/24 brd 192.168.182.255 scope global noprefixroute dynamic eth1
       valid_lft 1786sec preferred_lft 1786sec
    inet6 fe80::7073:2021:e866:204f/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

 

系统版本:CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core) 

内网IP:192.168.182.128/24   #用来对内通信,提供cobbler服务

外网IP:192.168.4.190/24     #连接外网

 

 二. 关闭安全服务

 

 [[email protected] ~]# systemctl stop firewalld #关闭防火墙 [[email protected] ~]# setenforce 0 #关闭selinux

     

 三. 下载cobbler及其所需服务程序

 

[[email protected] ~]# yum install cobbler dhcp tftp-server xinetd syslinux httpd -y

syslinux: 提供pxelinux.0这个文件 ,pxelinux.0引导文件引导vmlinux和initrd两个启动文件

 

yum安装cobbler需要使用下面两个源,大家可以复制下面的代码到自己的yum仓库保存即可

[epel]
name=epel enabled=1 gpgcheck=0
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/epel/7/x86_64/

[centos]name=centos base
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/7/os/x86_64/

 

配置相关服务    

 

第一步:配置DHCP服务

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf 
subnet 192.168.182.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
  range 192.168.182.150 192.168.182.155;
  default-lease-time 600;
  max-lease-time 7200;
  filename \"pxelinux.0\";
}
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart dhcpd

 

第二步:配置tftp

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
# default: off
# description: The tftp server serves files using the trivial file transfer \\
#    protocol.  The tftp protocol is often used to boot diskless \\
#    workstations, download configuration files to network-aware printers, \\
#    and to start the installation process for some operating systems.
service tftp
{
    socket_type        = dgram
    protocol        = udp
    wait            = yes
    user            = root
    server            = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
    server_args        = -s /var/lib/tftpboot
    disable            = no        #yes改为no
    per_source        = 11
    cps            = 100 2
    flags            = IPv4
}
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart xinetd

 

 第三步:启动cobbler

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl status cobblerd

 

第四步:启动httpd

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart httpd

 

第五步:检查cobbler配置

[[email protected] ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : The \'server\' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it.
2 : For PXE to be functional, the \'next_server\' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.
3 : Some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run \'cobbler get-loaders\' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The \'cobbler get-loaders\' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
4 : enable and start rsyncd.service with systemctl
5 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
6 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to \'cobbler\' and should be changed, try: \"openssl passwd -1 -salt \'random-phrase-here\' \'your-password-here\'\" to generate new one
7 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run \'cobbler sync\' to apply changes.

 

   根据如上反馈,需要一一进行修改才能继续进行

 

修改配置文件/etc/cobbler/settings

   问题一:

   cobbler文件默认是127.0.0.1本地回环地址,需要更改为提供cobbler服务的ip地址 192.168.182.128,在384行

384 server: 192.168.182.128

  问题二:

  netx_server也是默认本地127.0.0.1回环地址,需要修改为提供cobbler服务的ip地址 192.163.182,128,在272行出

272 next_server: 192.168.182.128

    问题三:

     可以忽略

   问题四:

     启动rsync即可

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart rsyncd

  [[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable rsyncd

 问题五:
可以忽略
 问题六:
更改密码
[[email protected] ~]# openssl passwd -1 -salt \"123\" \"123456\"
$1$123$7mft0jKnzzvAdU4t0unTG1

 


并把新生成的加密数据填写进/etc/cobbler/settings

101 default_password_crypted: \"$1$123$7mft0jKnzzvAdU4t0unTG1\"

问题七:

  可以忽略

 

以上问题解决之后,需要同步和重启

[[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler sync

 

再次检查是否已经更改完成

Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/rsyncd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/rsyncd.service.
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : Some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run \'cobbler get-loaders\' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The \'cobbler get-loaders\' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
2 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
3 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run \'cobbler sync\' to apply changes.

 

已经更改完毕!

 

第六步:挂载光盘并进行数据导入

挂载光盘
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/cdrom  /mnt
数据导入(需要一些时间)
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler import --path=/mnt --name=\"centos7.5\"
task started: 2019-03-13_001927_import
task started (id=Media import, time=Wed Mar 13 00:19:27 2019)
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Found a matching signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Adding distros from path /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5:
creating new distro: centos7.5-x86_64
trying symlink: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5 -> /var/www/cobbler/links/centos7.5-x86_64
creating new profile: centos7.5-x86_64
associating repos
checking for rsync repo(s)
checking for rhn repo(s)
checking for yum repo(s)
starting descent into /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5 for centos7.5-x86_64
processing repo at : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5
need to process repo/comps: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5
looking for /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/repodata/*comps*.xml
Keeping repodata as-is :/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/repodata
*** TASK COMPLETE ***


  查看distro

[[email protected] ~]# cobbler distro list
centos7.5-x86_64


查看profile
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler profile list
centos7.5-x86_64

 

   distro : 发行版, 就是我们安装什么版本的linux操作系统的名称 一会我们会导入一个 distro.
   profile : 类似于一个 配置文件,类似于你的 bash_profile, 里面包含你可以添加 kernel 参数,对应的kickstart 文件 以及 此profile 对应的 distro 等等.

 

第八步:准备kickstart文件

 

在root目录下找到ks文件,并移动到/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/到目录下改名为ks.cfg
[[email protected] ~]# mv anaconda-ks.cfg /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks.cfg
[[email protected] ~]# vim /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks.cfg
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks.cfg
#version=DEVEL
# System authorization information
auth --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
# Use CDROM installation media
url --url=http://192.168.182.128/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/  #这里需要更改为repodata所在的http地址
# Use graphical install
graphical
# Run the Setup Agent on first boot
firstboot --enable
ignoredisk --only-use=sda
# Keyboard layouts
keyboard --vckeymap=us --xlayouts=\'us\'
# System language
lang en_US.UTF-8

# Network information
network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=ens33 --ipv6=auto --no-activate
network  --hostname=localhost.localdomain

# Root password
rootpw --iscrypted $6$7zu1wIUDgBGEFV1Y$KsLVeaGmyN92.QHr1fqKdTqPu8PDmd8K9V/s3Ru8NxE53NZz4gQKsmP6K0udcXVvDtponekICYUwBD7tYZJqU/
# System services
services --disabled=\"chronyd\"
# System timezone
timezone Asia/Shanghai --isUtc --nontp
# System bootloader configuration
bootloader --location=mbr --boot-drive=sda
autopart --type=lvm
# Partition clearing information
clearpart --none --initlabel

%packages
@^minimal
@core

%end

%addon com_redhat_kdump --disable --reserve-mb=\'auto\'

%end

%anaconda
pwpolicy root --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --notempty
pwpolicy user --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --emptyok
pwpolicy luks --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --notempty
%end

 

第八步:自定义profile

[[email protected] ~]#  cobbler profile add --distro=centos7.5-x86_64 --name=centos7.5_ken --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks.cfg
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler sync
task started: 2019-03-13_002724_sync
task started (id=Sync, time=Wed Mar 13 00:27:24 2019)
running pre-sync triggers
cleaning trees
removing: /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.5-x86_64
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/efidefault
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.5-x86_64
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/s390x/profile_list
copying bootloaders
copying distros to tftpboot
copying files for distro: centos7.5-x86_64
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.5-x86_64/vmlinuz
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.5-x86_64/initrd.img
copying images
generating PXE configuration files
generating PXE menu structure
copying files for distro: centos7.5-x86_64
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.5-x86_64/vmlinuz
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.5/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.5-x86_64/initrd.img
Writing template files for centos7.5-x86_64
rendering TFTPD files
generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
processing boot_files for distro: centos7.5-x86_64
cleaning link caches
running post-sync triggers
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.manage_genders
running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

 

第九步:查看profile

[[email protected] ~]# cobbler profile list
   centos7.5-x86_64
   centos7.5_ken

 

第十步:删除不包含ks文件的profile

[[email protected] ~]# cobbler profile remove --name=centos7.5-x86_64
[[email protected] ~]# cobbler profile list
   centos7.5_ken

 

cobbler自动化安装测试

 

新建一个虚拟机,需要和cobbler服务器所在同一个虚拟网络中即与我们上面设置的cobbler服务器的主机模式。内存需要3个G以上。

选择第我们自定义的包即可进行自动化安装。

 

 

 

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